Are municipal residency ordinances valid?

The United States Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of a municipal residency requirement in McCarthy v. Philadelphia Civil Service Commission.  Residency is a mandatory subject of collective bargaining pursuant to the Municipal Employment Relations Act.  The following helps determine the residency of a person who divides his/her time between two locations:

  1. The location of the person’s immediate family;
  2. Where the person votes;
  3. Where the person’s children attend school;
  4. Where the person shops; and
  5. What address appears on the person’s driver’s license, car registration, bank accounts and tax returns.